Old Occitan > Morphology, Part Two



Apart from the expected irregulars ("to be, to have," etc.) Old Occitan has two systems of conjugation. Note that some forms of the first person singular and the third person plural have several possible endings.

Pay particular attention to the accenting of the endings. This is especially important if the verb stem has an accented è or ò since these may diphthongize when accented. So, volém we want but vuèlh or vuòlh I want, s/he wants.

Final -nt often reduces to -n, so cant, I sing, or can.

When a verb form would normally have no ending (say, first person singular present indicative) ends in a consonant cluster unpronounceable in Old Occitan a support -e will be added, obre from obrir. Sometimes this will appear even when not necessary.

Verbs in -ar

This reflects the original Latin -are class. Foreign verbs taken into the language also tended to end up in the -ar conjugation.

cantár, to sing

Present Indicative Present Subjunctive
1st.sg cant cant
2nd.sg cántas cantz
3rd.sg cánta cant
1st.pl cantám cantém
2nd.pl cantátz cantétz
3rd.pl cántan, -on cánton
Imperfect
1st.sg cantáva
2nd.sg cantávas
3rd.sg cantáva
1st.pl cantavám
2nd.pl cantavátz
3rd.pl cantávan, -on
Future First Conditional
1st.sg cantarái cantaría
2nd.sg cantarás cantarías
3rd.sg cantará cantaría
1st.pl cantarém cantariám
2nd.pl cantarétz cantariátz
3rd.pl cantarán cantarían
Preterit Past Subjunctive
1st.sg cantèi cantès
2nd.sg cantèst cantèsses
3rd.sg cantèt cantès
1st.pl cantèm cantessém
2nd.pl cantètz cantessétz
3rd.pl cantèron cantèsson
Second Conditional
1st.sg cantèra
2nd.sg cantèras
3rd.sg cantèra
1st.pl canterám
2nd.pl canterátz
3rd.pl cantèran
Present Participle
cantán
Past Participle
cantát, -áda

Verbs not in -ar

This is where the other three Latin conjugations went. The infinitives of these may be -er, -re and -ir. Some verbs switch between -re and -er

partír, to leave

Present Indicative Present Subjunctive
1st.sg part, parte, parti párta
2nd.sg partz pártas
3rd.sg part párta
1st.pl partém partám
2nd.pl partètz partátz
3rd.pl párton pártan
Imperfect
1st.sg partía
2nd.sg partías
3rd.sg partía
1st.pl partiám
2nd.pl partiátz
3rd.pl partían, -on
Future First Conditional
1st.sg part(i)rái part(i)ría
2nd.sg part(i)rás part(i)rías
3rd.sg part(i)rá
1st.pl part(i)rém part(i)riám
2nd.pl part(i)rétz part(i)riátz
3rd.pl part(i)rán part(i)rían
Preterit Past Subjunctive
1st.sg partí partís
2nd.sg partís partísses
3rd.sg partí, -ít, -íc partís
1st.pl partím partissém
2nd.pl partítz partissétz
3rd.pl partíron partísson
Second Conditional
1st.sg partíra
2nd.sg partíras
3rd.sg partíra
1st.pl partirám
2nd.pl partirátz
3rd.pl partíran
Present Participle
partén
Past Participle
partít, -ída

There are a number of non-ar verbs for which there is no vowel ending in the preterit for 1st and 3rd singular. So, the preterit indicative of saber to know is saup, saubist, saup, saubem, saubetz, saubron.

Compound Tenses

The Present Perfect is formed by combining the present tense of aver with the past participle:

ai perdut mon gaug I have lost my joy

pèrdre to lose, past part. perdut;
gaug joy, masc.

The participle may or may not agree with the direct object: ai preza venjansa I have taken vengeance.

With intransitive verbs (verbs of motion or rest "approach, rest, come," etc.) the present of eser is used. In this case the past participle agrees with the subject.

Most reflexive verbs are considered intransitive and thus take eser: me sui partitz de lai I have gone away from there.

Anar may use either aver or eser for the present perfect.

A form of Present Progressive is formed with anar (to go) and the present participle: so qu'ieu vauc deziran that which I am desiring.

Habitual action is indicated with soler with the infinitve. Note that the present of soler is used but that it has a past meaning: il solon anar prezicant they used to go (around) preaching. The imperfect of soler with the infinitive implies either past habitual or a past perfect habitual: cil qu'amar solia that (lady) whom I used to love.

Copyright (c) 2006-2017 William S. Annis