One the one hand... Vaior likes to make
comparisons and contrasts. Sequences of related sentences will always
have some connective words linking them. These linking words often
differ from one another in fairly subtle ways. Of course, English
does the same thing with "then he said," "before we left," "because it
was hot," &c., and Vaior has these conjunctions, too, but it
has some others which act rather differently, as you discovered in the
previous lesson with ta. There are a few more words which act
Here is a quick list of the relevent enclitic
conjunctions. Remember that the enlitics have no accent of their own
and they must follow some other word, generally one you wish to
- ta - this means "but" or "and" but is often used simply
to emphasize a word, which may or may not be shifted to the
head of the phrase
- uri - "on the one hand," this sets up a contrast and
will, if the speaker isn't interrupted, be followed by a clause
- me - "also" like ta often comes after the second
word of a sentence, but may also be found anywhere following
the word it modifies
- min - this means "for" in the sense of "because."
This always appears near the very beginning of a sentence.
- taul "and so; therefore; then;" this can be used
anywhere in a sentence, but has strong enclitic tendencies.
Often used as a filler word, like "well" in English.
While all of the words in the list above are used
quite a lot in Vaior, by far the most important are ta and
uri which are used very, very often together, with uri
setting up some statement to which ta will provide some
contrast. You can think of uri... ta... as on the one
hand... on the other hand but often the contrast is much more
subtle. Here are some examples to give you a feel for these. Often I
don't bother to translate them very strongly at all:
Aith uri aldovelle lerai na, an ta aldoven talai va.
He went away from (the) house, but I came into (the) house.
Eien uri paio va, ennen ta lu. This I understand, but not
Inleio va uri iei enthiari, astia ta vai lu.
I like this restaurant, but my friend (does) not.
It's not uncommon to see several of these enclitics
piling on top of each other, espcially ta and me. For
example, leri vachir, ertuari ta me úai Let's go and
take a look!
Of the group, min is used a lot in follow-up
sentences which the reason for something, or even why the person made
the previous sentence. Vaior really likes to connect sentences
together in some way, but this enthusiasm for linking is not terribly
common in English. So, when translating Vaior you may not want to
translate the min literally as "for" or "because", since both
will sound a little stilted if you use them as frequently as they
appear in Vaior. For example, in one of the dialogs below, Jane says
this, while talking about a restaurant under discussion: Ce corho
va landu rul enul. Han cisco ir sater? Lu min inleio va sateri
cisciri. I've never heard about this. Are the dishes spicy?
(For) I don't like spicy dishes. So, she uses min to make
a statement about why she askes about the spiciness of the
Adjectives. We have encountered a few
adjectives in earlier lessons. In all those cases I brushed over what
most learners will find one of the odder features of Vaior grammar,
namely that the adjective is often used as a verb, what I'll call a
stative verb from here on. The first example you had was
CIAR to be in good health/spirits in han ciaro
sa? are you well?
So, all stative verbs (i.e. adjectives) are
treated like verbs. Some examples (CHUL to be black,
TAIS to be small):
taiso ie this is small
chulo nal the stone is black
ciaru vinne the girl will be in good health
When you wish to use these stative verbs to modify a
noun, that is, "the black stone" rather than as a statement, "the
stone is black" you can treat the stative verb just like a noun stem.
As in many languages, a modifying adjective must agree in number and
case with the noun it modifies. In Vaior, modifying adjectives
generally follow their nouns. Here are some examples:
- so nal chul thare
where is the black stone?
- tuarai va nalan chulan
I saw the black stone
- piono vinne ciar carmeran taisran
the healthy/happy girl is reading small books
A fair number of stative verbs have a dictionary
form which end in consonants that are not allowed to fall at the end
of a Vaior word. For example, CISC hot/spicy can be
used fine as a stative verb, cisco ne sate andul that dish
is very spicy, but *sate cisc is illegal, since a Vaior
word cannot end in two consonants. So, you need some special way to
handle adjectives in the nominative singular. It turns out that
stative verb stems that end in two consonants simply add a final
-a: sate cisca a spicy dish. Different verbs
handle the problem differently, though many simply add the final
-a. In vocabulary and dictionary listings, the adjective form
is given in parenthesis after the stem form, like this: CISC
Here is a list of the nominative singular
substantive form for stative verbs you've seen so far:
- CIAR, be well, in good health/spirits: ciar
- FID, be fast, rapid: fin
- SAMP, be correct: sampa
- UAS, be slow: uas
Giving commands. When giving commands in
Vaior you use the imperative mood. There is an imperative form for
each of the three tenses, and it may be confusing to an English
speaker to try to understand when you'd ever give a command in the
past. This will explained in a later section, so for now you most
need to know the present tense imperative for giving commands: simply
add -i to the verb stem: leri! go!, tali
viaren come here!, &c..
Normally you won't give a bare imperative unless
you're speaking to a child or a soldier under your command. It's
considered rude to give a bald command to anyone else, and there are
ways to moderate the tone of a command. First, you may add the
particle úai to the end of the command, which is neutral
and is sufficient to moderate an imperative enough for use with
anyone. Next, you can add the phrase mido va I ask, I
request to either the start or the end of the imperative, which
is a bit more formal. Most formally, you'd replace mido va
with mido uinna where uinna is a rather formal way
of saying "I."
Silhi viare! Stay here!
Silhi viare úai. Stay here, please.
Silhi viare, mido va. Stay here, please.
Mido va, silhi viare. I ask (that) you stay here.
Mido uinna, silhi viare úai.
One asks that you please remain here.
Even though mido va means "I request" you're
still giving commands in all the sentences above even if they are very
polite commands, since you're using the imperative. Making a polite
request is handled differently, and will be discussed in a
Finally, you can use the imperative with other
pronouns. For example, if you were telling a bunch of kids to go
away, leri sir aithu! You can also use it with the first
person pronoun, in the sense of "let us, let's:" leri vachir
aldoven airu (úai) let's go home now.
Middle and Reflexive Verbs. In the previous
lesson I introduced the passive voice, that is, the difference between
"I see" and "I am seen." It turns out that there are many more voice
possibilities than just the active and the passive. Different
languages have different numbers of voices available to them. Vaior
When thinking about these different voices there are
two things to keep in mind about what a change in voice represents:
valence and salience. First, the agent (do-er) and patient or focus
(do-ee) often move about in a voice change. For the passive example,
in "I am seen by him" what was once the object of the sentence ("me"
in "he sees me") has become the subject. You can even say "I am seen"
and in this case the original subject has disappeared altogether.
This arrangement and number of subjects and objects is the
valence of a verb. A switch in voice also entails a switch
in salience, in what the speaker considers most important.
Obviously the relationship between salience and valence is quite high,
but keeping both in mind during discussions of voice will help you
understand what is going on and why it is important.
In the middle voice, the object of an active
sentence becomes the subject, and the original subject disappears
altogether. You can do this with a passive, too, tuarauo va
I am seen but in the passive the original subject is at least
implied. In the middle, you cannot even mention it: the agent is
tuaro na van he sees me
tuarauo va (nalle) I am seen (by him)
tuario va I am seen
lairho va nu maith I know that person
lairhauo nu maith valle that person is known by me
lairhio nu maith that person is known
As you can see in these examples above, it's often
easiest to translate the middle into English as an agentless passive.
The reflexive voice simply indicates that the agent
and the patient of a verb are the same: tuareio va I see
It is vitally important for native speakers of
English to pay close attention to the use of voice in Vaior. It turns
out that English does in fact have a middle voice, but it is indicated
entirely by syntax. It's easy to overlook how complex a verb like
"move" (PARV, v.tr.) is in English:
parvai va holan I moved a chair
parvauai hol valle a chair was moved by me
parviai hol a chair moved
parveiai va aithu I moved (myself) away
(by my own effort)
parviai va aithu I moved away (who knows how)
parvauai va aithu I was moved away
So, please note very, very carefully the difference
between parvauai en hol the chair was moved,
parviai en hol the chair moved and the rather spooky
parveiai en hol the chair moved (itself). The
situation for people is a little more complex: parvai va aithen
I moved something, parvauai va I was moved
(by whom/what unspecified but implied), parviai va I
moved (agency irrelevant) and parveiai va I moved
(by my own agency).
Howdy. As you've seen in the dialogs, there
are several ways to say hello and good-bye in Vaior:
- saremon - a polite greeting, sometimes formal, only for
- airenen - used in both formal and informal contexts, can
be used for both "hello" and "good-bye"
- arau - an infromal variety of airenen
Each of these may be followed with the words
euei, pini or laili for "good morning", "good
day" and "good evening" respectively (eue - morning,
pin - day, lail - evening, night).
So, airenen euei "good morning." Some people put the time
words at the front: euei arau! good morning!.
carsone - waiter, waitress; this is from the French word
garçon. While that word is expressly
masculine in French, the Vaior version has no gender
significance at all.
covambe - bill, lit. "collection of costs"
cual - fruit; squash, cucumbers and zucchini all count as fruit
dalvia - work, labor
enthiar - restaurant
fil - garlic
foth - vegetable
iettinn - meat; flesh
irvasinn - mirror
lef - bread
lune - soup; stew; you drink soup, not eat it, in Vaior
meich - mushroom
míe - rice
mos - bowl
nace - knife
osrin - cheese
roch - spoon
satambe - menu, lit. "collection of dishes"
sate - "a dish," as in "main dish;" a food course
CISC (cisca) - to be hot (as in spicy, piquant... not temperature)
DALV - to work, to labor
ihinath - to be clear, transparent;
to be bland (in flavor, &c.)
LARTH (lartha) - to be fresh (of food)
LUD - to cook
MALCH - (v.tr.) to (take a) taste
MARIT (marith) to be hungry
NUAL (nual) to be new
PARV (v.tr.) to move
SAIT - to eat
UIR - to be thirsty
culdu - always
ei... ei...; eia... eia... either... or...
haulu - often
lor - without + gen.
ol - out, out of, out from; + genitive due to, because of
rhai - perhaps, maybe
sía, síe - a few, a little (bit of)
see (pronounced "sehhhh") means something like "yeah"
and "well..." You can draw it out if you wish, seeee,
with a dropping pitch.
tuvíal - at will, as you wish, as one wishes
Olorathatier: when describing dishes, the
main ingredient of a dish will typically be in the genitive. So, a
"cheese dish" is sate osrini; a meat stew is lune
In addition to it's location/motion meaning, the
preposition ol can be used with the genitive to indicate origin
or cause: ol irvasinni because of the mirror.
(Friends meeting accidentally after work)
Nico: Hei, e Sein, han valdai dalvia sai?
Sein: Arau, e Nico. Seri, valdai. Han ciaro sa?
Nico: Ciar andu. Nus vai leri enthiaran nualan úai!
Sein: Then enthiaran nualan?
Nico: Enthiaran Irvasinnan. 1
Sein: Ce corho va landu rul enul. Han cisco ir sater? Lu min
inleio va sateri cisciri.
Nico: Seeee, ilo sater ciscir uri, ilos ihinathir
2 ta me.
Sein: Valdíal, 3 e Nico, leri vachir,
malchi ta me úai! 4 Marito va andul.
Nick: Hey, Jane, was your work pleasant?
Jane: Hi, Nick. Yes, it was fine. How are you?
Nick: Very well. Come with me to a new restaurant!
Jane: To what new restaurant?
Nick: To the "Mirror."
Jane: I have never heard about it. Are the dishes spicy? I don't
like spciy food.
Nick: Wellll, there are spciy dishes, but there are also plain
Jane: OK, Nick, let's go and try (them)! I am very hungry.
- Enthiar Irvasinn - when giving the name of an
establishment normally you always say what sort it is. So,
never just "The Mirror" but "Restaurant The Mirror."
- ilos ta ihinathir me - if it's clear what it refers to,
you can drop the noun an adjective is modifying. In this
phrase, since we know we're talking about sater there
is no reason to repeat it, though you could also say
ilos ta sater ihinathir me.
Also note ilos. It is ilo
with the evidence marker -s indicating the speaker has
direct knowledge about the matter.
- Valdíal - this is a catch-all phrase for "good,
great, let's!" and so on.
- malchi ta me úai - again, since we know what is
refered to, the dishes at The Mirror, there is no need to
mention them explicitly. Jane could have said, more fully,
malchi ta me iran úai.
(Enthiarass Irvasinnasse) 1
Carsone2: Mido va, e nathir,3 apeihi
Sein: E carsone nath, latiaren.
Carsone: Ilo satamber. Han coniaran?4
Nick: Ais lu, e nath
Sein: Han ilo arhta?
Carsone: Ilo5, e nath.
Sein: Arhtan6 taul, mido va.
Carsone: E nathir....7
Nico: Saitu sa then saten? Han síeran, rhai?
Sein: Ais lu paio va. Theri ta sateri inleio sa, e Nico?
Nico: Lunei ta fili inleio va. Lartho min fil andul.
Sein: Han míei meichi?8
Nico: See, lu inleio va meichi, astiar ta vai inleio satei.
Sein: Va ta inleio meichi andul!
Carsone: Theran ta sateran, e nathir?
(to be continued...)
Waiter: Please, be seated.
Jane: Thank you.
Waiter: Here are menus. Something to drink?
Nick: Not yet, please.
Jane: Is there tea?
Waiter: There is.
Jane: Tea, then, please.
Waiter: Very well.
Nick: What dish will you have? Or dishes, perhaps?
Jane: I don't know yet. Which dishes do you like, Nick?
Nick: I like the garlic soup. The garlic is very fresh.
Jane: And the rice with mushroom?
Nick: Well, I don't like mushroom, but my friends like the dish.
Jane: I like mushrooms a lot!
Carsone: Which dishes for you then?
- This part of the dialog is much harder to capture correctly in
English: the Vaior is fairly casual and abbreviated, while still
being polite. The politeness is conveyed primarily by
addressing people with nath and use of tone-moderating
particles such as úai.
- Carsone could refer to either a waiter or a waitress.
- There is no single, gender neutral word to translate
nathir here. In any case, the carsone is asking
both of them to seat themselves (ap-ei-hi).
- In the phrase han coniaran the word for drinks is in the
accusative. This is because the carsone has abbreviated
the phrase from "would you like to have drinks" or something
similar. In any case, the verb would take a direct object, so
coniar must be in the accusative.
- Since every knows that tea is being discussed, there's no need
for the carsone to say anything more than "there is"
even though this leaves ilo without a stated
- We'll cover the vocabulary for different kinds of tea later.
See note 4 for the use of the accusative here.
- Here the carsone simply acknowledges his guests before
- Here míei is again in the genitive since it is
the object of the omitted inleio.
Exercises 5a. Tersia 5a.
- Lualo telefone uri vai sampíal, compute ta lu.
- Lu inleio va uri ennei enthiari, arelle cisco sater andul.
Astiar ta vai inleio.
- Saitai mir me iesse enthiarasse.
- Ol satei larthi saito va haulu ness enthiarasse.
(ness < nesse, ne-sse, "at that")
- Saitio ie sate thíal? Ei rochul ei ol mosalle.
- Lairhio asu tath.
- Penthi vachir úeru, e nathir!
- An aldovesse vai saitio sater ciscir fidíal.
- Iei ta satei cisci inleio va andul.
- Evariohanin eier.
- Lu ludo na uri aune, va ta haulu.
- "Han uiro sa?" "Seri. Leri vachir cauairen."
- Han aistio mave? Lo, faunios en.
- Nus ta thai tuarauai sa iess enthiarasse?
- My sister likes meat dishes, but I do not.
- My brother likes cheese dishes, but does not eat
fruit. Note: use "fruits" for the general notion here.
- This woman also likes coffee.
- I tasted a very spicy vegetable soup.
- The hungry child wants to eat now (I know for sure).
- With whom will you drink at the cafe?
- Their spicy dishes are eaten.
- Come with me to my friend's home!
- In this restaurant the plain dishes are eaten
quickly. (agency irrelevent)
- She was seen here yesterday (I hear).
- Why did he move (to) near the door?
- rith, ri
- tinde har
- tinde tin
- tinde san
The cardinal numbers in Vaior are basically
adjectives. They are declined like adjectives to agree in case with
the noun they modify, but they don't change for number. Unlike most
adjectives, but similarly to most demonstrative pronouns, numbers tend
to come before their noun:
- Tuaro va haran rhonan. I see one man.
- Tuaro va sanan tathran. I see three women.
- Tuaro va alan maithran ciarran I see four healthy
Time. Now that we have a few numbers, we can
start to talk about time. Already we have encountered a few words
such as apinu today, tavinu tomorrow,
and so on. When talking about time there are generally four ways you
can go: 1) you can talk about how long, 2) you can talk about
when, at what time, 3) you can talk about since when
and 4) you can talk about until when. English has slightly
different ways to represent these, and so does Vaior, sometimes by
using a particular case for the time word, and sometimes, as in
Enlgish, by using a preposition:
- how long (thíaldu or even sometimes
thíaldulle) - use the ablative, pinrall alalle
for four days
- when, at what time (thaldu) - use the
accusative, lailan in the evening
- since when (ol thaldu) - use ol
with the genitive, ol pinri seri since five days
(ago), but not when the time word is an adverb
ending in -u when there is no case marking at all:
ol lervinu since yesterday.
- until when (an thaldu) - use an
with the accusative, an lailan until evening.
Again, no case change when using an adverb: an alailu
until this evening.
Probably the hardest part to remember will be the
since when syntax, since ol would not normally take
the genitive case. In a future lessons I'll introduce some more time
words and will review this briefly again there.
Adverb Groups. There are all sorts of
qualifications you can work into a sentence to make the meaning more
precise. You can say when the action of the sentence
happened, both by tense and other time words, you can say
where something happened and you can say how
Once again, it turns out different languages expect
the Time, Manner and Place to go in a different order. In English, we
generally put place before time: I went yesterday to the
restaurant sounds a little strange. In Vaior, the general order
is Manner - Time - Place/Direction with the exception that any
of these phrases can be moved to the head of the sentence for
Lerai va lervinu enthian. but also...
Enthian lerai va lervinu. and, rarely:
*Lervinu lerai va enthian.
The last sentence is marked with a star to indicate
that it isn't quite correct Vaior. When you move a time adverb or a
time phrase to the head of a sentence, you have to follow it with
ar before continuing the rest of the sentence:
Lervinu ar lerai va enthiaran.
Yesterday I went to a restaurant.
Good. There is no single word for "good" in
Vaior. In English, the word covers a lot of ground, with meanings
from "pleasant" to "ethical" which is quite a stretch. In Vaior, you
must choose the correct one:
- LAM for "skillful, functional, appropriate for a function"
- SEN for "ethical, nice, kind"
- VALD (valda) for "pleasant"
Most of the time when you want to say say "good"
during a conversation mostly as filler, you should normally use
valdíal. Matching all these words for "good," though
not quite perfectly, are several "bad" words:
- ullam- "broken, unskillful"
- SALCH (salcha) "unethical; unkind"
- URV (urva) "unpleasant"
Again, in normal conversation, you'll usually want
to use the word urvíal as a general "this is not so
good" filler word.
Good, better, best. Comparing degrees of a
quality (better, best, faster, fastest, etc) in Vaior is handled a
little differently in Vaior (no surprise). Perhaps the biggest
difference is that not only are there -er and -est
markers, but the idea of "less X" and "least X" are also indicated
- mie-: more, -er
- has- + C, hatt- + V: most, -est
- sal-: less
- saim-: least
Notice that the superlative prefix is different
depending one whether it is prefixed to a word starting in a vowel or
a consonant: hatturva most unpleasant, but
hasvalda most pleasant.
When you are comparing with something, the thing
compared to goes in the ablative. So, na rhon miepauch the
stupider man but na rhon miepauch valle the man
stupider than me. Some more examples:
mielamo ie this is better
mielamo ie ennelle this is better than that
haslamo ie this is best
haslamo ie ennerelle this is best of those
salrhiso na he is less stupid
salrhiso na valle he is less stupid than me
saimrhiso na vachiralle he is least stupid of us
(Just a note that really, Vaior does have two words
for stupid: rhis which usually means "they should have known
better" and pauch which implies an innate stupidity, and isn't
really a very nice word.)
English will sometimes use "most" as a simple
emphatic, "that party was most enjoyable." You can
not use the superlative this way in Vaior.
Participles. Another very useful and very
common verb form available in Vaior is the participle. This is
basically a verbal adjective which modifies a noun, specifying it in
some way, "the sleeping child," "the walking student," etc.
In Vaior participles have tense though it takes a little work to
translate that into English. The participle is formed by adding
-th to a conjugated verb (DAIP to walk):
past: tath daipaith a woman having walked
present: tath daipoth a walking woman
future: tath daiputh a woman about to walk
Just like other adjectives, participles must agree
in number and case with the noun they go with:
Tuaro va tathan daipothan. I see a walking woman.
Tuaro va tathran daipothran. I see a walking women.
Though the participle is in some ways like an
adjective, it is still a verb form, so the participle can take objects
and other modifiers. Some shuffling of the word order of the
non-participle phrase may be necessary to avoid ambiguities:
Tuaro va tathan daipothan fidíal aldoven.
I see a woman walking home quickly.
Aldoven lero tath daipoth fidíal.
The woman walking quickly is going home.
Lero tath daipoth fidíal aldoven.
"The woman walking quickly is going home." or
"The woman walking quickly home is going."
Because of these ambiguities, participle phrases
modifying the subject of a sentence are particularly prone to shifting
to the head of a sentence. Also, it is quite common for the objects
and other modifiers of a participle/noun pair to be wedged between the
two: tuaro va tathan fidí aldoven daipothan.
Participle phrases can be a little tricky to
translate into English. They sometimes represent a contrast, or
another amplification of the meaning, for which English speakers would
normally use some conjunction:
Ais uiro rhon conaith anden. Having drunk much, the
man is still thirsty; although he drank a lot, the man is still
So, when doing the English-to-Vaior exercises below,
keep in mind how participles can be used.
Amounts. The Vaior word thíam
means how much, how many. Sometimes it acts like an
adjective, conai sa thíaman cauan? how much coffee
did you drink, but just as often it is followed by what's known
as the "partitive genitive", how much of coffee did you
drink conai sa thíaman cauai. Both of these
constructions are correct, but in general individual speakers will
prefer one form to another. So, don't mix and match too much: pick
When you want to talk about more of something, use
miethíam (more-how-much): miethíaman
arhtai, úai more tea, please. Be careful, though,
to distinguish this "more" from the "more" used to make comparative
adjectives, "more intelligent."
arra - minute
assuce - sugar
eue - morning; euatie - dawn
halle - salt
lail - night, evening
pin - day
raide - hour
un - water
CAUHAD (cauhada, cauhan) - to be difficult
HONL (honla) - to be sweet (sugary, or of fruit)
IASIM - to be sweet (of spices or smells)
MAC - get, acquire
MALD - prefer, consider best + abl. of thing compared
to: maldo va arhtan caualle I prefer tea to coffee
MIND - to happen, occur
PITH - to be hot
SACHR - to remember, recall
SANTH - to laugh
ULM (ulma) - to be tired
ailidu - sometimes
funíal - of course, naturally
lorull - except, excluding, besides + gen.
miethíam - more (of)
thíam - how much
thíamatíal - a little bit
Exercises 5b. Tersia 5b.
- Ais marito tath conaith lunen.
- Ludai na evaroth astiaraste.
- Lorull auri vinri, maldo tha sateran miehonliran?
- Penthaihanin vin cúelle lailalle.
- Arhtan honlan maldo rhon silhoth naresse cauall pithalle.
- No one having seen this will listen to that man again.
- Though not hungry, I ate with friends.
- Having worked (for the, all) night, he slept until dawn.
- The waiter worked slowly in the restaurant.
- The laughing woman prefered the spiciest soup.
A reading. Here's a brief fable entirely in
Vaior. I've added some vocabulary and grammar notes at the end to help
you with this, since it does include a few things not yet introduced.
It's rather short, but it does give you a beginning taste of what
running, connected Vaior will look like. Skip it and come back to it
later if you find it too difficult.
Sersi siothatiesse coldauai vam dúelte
oceninauaith túirru saivalalle. Cervi unchineran ocaith evarai
na enneraste, "tuerho va, tíar aitothir ach pitothir thiuhen lu
vatauo sir iell saivalall fidalle." Ravothir evarai nir, "rafcenaith
min saivalan, sihaunai uri sa. Haudeiai ta mir saivalall haspitalle,
taul imsauo mir."
First, lets get some of the vocabulary out of the
way. In a few cases I'm going to lie a bit, and give an idiomatic
translation to help you get the sense of the story quickly.
oceninauaith túirru "felled, thrown down"
unchine "reed:" un water + chin
TUERH wonder, be amazed
tíar "that" - connects sentences
AIT be light
PIT be weak
VAT to crush
FID to be strong
RAV to answer
rafcen- to fight, to battle
SIHAUN to fail, to collapse from internal flaw or weakness
HAUD to bend, haudei- "to bend" (intransitive)
haspit- "weakest" has- + PIT
IMS to save, preserve
Now to explain some of the grammar and style
In the first sentence there are two verbs, one
conjugated, one participle: coldauai was thrown and
oceninauaith having been made-to-fall. The
participle, being in the nominative case, modifies the subject of the
sentence, in this case dúelte oak. Note that
the participle phrase is pretty hefty. Very often Vaior will use
participle phrases where English would use a more complex clause
structure, perhaps a relative clause here. Also, notice that when you
have multiple things modifying a noun, some go before. So here,
vam dúelte oceninauaith large oak having been
The second sentence also uses a participle as well
as a normal verb, having fallen he said. Then the Oak has a
few words, including even more participles, these time acting in a
contrastive way, although you are light and week aitothir
Ravothir evarai nir is a little otiose in
English but not infrequent in Vaior, answering they said....
Note how the Reeds use min to set up an explanation. In
English you wouldn't necessarily make this effort to highlight what
you're saying, but in Vaior you really should.
Finally, notice the contrast set up in the last two
sentences with uri and ta: you were
destroyed, but we bend and are saved.
I think, I said. One thing people do a lot of
is reporting what they said in the past or will in the future, "I said
to him that this was a bad idea." The phrase which represents what
you said is called a "report clause," because it is a report of
someone's words. There is a lot of variation in English in how a
report clause may be constructed; in Vaior, there is comparatively
All report clauses in Vaior are introduced with the
conjunction, tíar which will generally follow a comma.
Please keep in mind the rule from the previous lesson about the
sequence of tenses:
Once a tense is established in the primary clause, all other
verb tenses are in realtion to that tense.
So, when reporting your words, be sure to keep track
of the tense of the report clause, which will be relative to the tense
of the main clause. Note these sentences and their tense use
- Evarai na, tíar leru sa.
He said that you would go.
- Evarai na, tíar lero sa.
He said that you were going.
- Evarai na, tíar lerai sa.
He said that you had gone.
You'll notice in sentence (1) that when you need to
indicate the future in subordinate clauses in English, you use the
word "would." And in (3) you'll see that English requires a past
perfect to indicate past relative to the past.
Report clauses don't just follow verbs meaing "say,
tell," &c., but also follow verbs of perception, opinion,
showing, agreeing and believing. Here are some example verbs that
introduce report clauses:
- CORH hear
- DURB think, hold an opinion - use this when you're
willing to admit you might change your mind
- eidurb- agree, with the same conditions as DURB
- EVAR say, tell
- LAURH think, believe, perceive
- PION read
- TUAR see
Finally, the conjunction tíar is
frequently shortened to just ti in all but formal language.
-(i)ttal- - "start to X." For example,
orittalai sa vaste you started to speak to me.
-llac- - "stop X-ing." For example,
pionallacai nu rhon carmen that man stopped reading a
-lsin- "to regard-as/consider X." For
example, andul urvalsino va eien I consider this very
unpleasant. This can also go with nouns: lu maithalsinai na
van he didn't consider me human.
-nhir- "should X, ought to X." Piling up on
the example from -lsin-, andul urvalsinanhiro sa eien
you should consider this very unpleasant.
ul- "un-, in-; opposite." This is
used more freely in in Vaior than in English, even when an opposite
already exists. So, although valda already has an
opposite in urva, one may also use ulvalda when the
lau- "non-, not." Take care to
distinguish this from ul-. Ullartha means
stale but laulartha is simply non-fresh.
Using both prefixes, lau- and ul-,
in the same word is considered silly.
Exercise. Dialog? Introduce two more prepositions.
Focus on evidence markers, reports, middle
ofnia - notion, idea
OFN - to have a notion, an idea
Exercises 5c. Tersia 5c.
- Nen ta saitallaci! Laulartho min en síu.
- Tuaro va tíar ais lu ro talo na carsone viaren.